HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS

History and Evolution

     The first mechanical adding machine was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642. Later, in 1671, Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz of Germany invented the first calculator. Around this time, Herman Hollerith came up with the concept of punched cards, which were extensively used as an input medium in mechanical adding machines.

        Charles Babbage, a nineteenth-century professor at Cambridge University, is considered the father of the modern digital computer. During this period, mathematical and statistical tables were prepared by a group of clerks. Utmost care and precautions, however, could not eliminate human errors.

       In 1842, Babbage came up with his new idea of the Analytical Engine, Which was intended to be completely automatic. This machine was capable of performing basic arithmetic functions. But, these machines were difficult to manufacture because the precision engineering required to manufacture them was not available at that time.

Computer

     The following is a brief description of the various generations of computers.

 Mark I Computer (1973-44): This was the first fully automatic calculating machine designed by Howard A. Aiken and the design of which was based on the technique of punching card machinery.     In this technique, both mechanical and electronic components were used.

Atanasoff-Berry Computer (1939-44): This computer was developed by Dr. John Atanasoff to solve certain mathematical equations. It used 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitors for storage.

ENIAC  (193-46): The Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) was the first electronic computer developed for military requirements and was used for many years to solve ballistic problems.

EDVAC (1946-52): One of the drawbacks of ENIAC was that its programs were wired on boards, which made it difficult to change them. To overcome the drawbacks of ENIAC, the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) was designed. The basic idea behind this concept was that sequences of instructions could be stored in the memory of the computer for automatically directing the flow of operations.

EDVAC (1946-52): One of the drawbacks of ENIAC was that its programs were wired on boards, which made it difficult to change them. To overcome the drawbacks of ENIAC, the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) was designed. The basic idea behind this concept was that sequences of instructions could be stored in the memory of the computer for automatically directing the flow of operations.

EDSAC (1947-49): Professor Maurice Wilkes developed the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC), by which addition and multiplication operations could be accomplished.

UNIVAC I (1951): The UNIVersal  Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) was the first digital computer to be installed in the Census Bureau in 1951 and was used continuously for 10 years. In 1952, International Business Machines (IBM) introduced the 701 commercial computers. These computers could be used for scientific and business purposes.

Bhupen Sahu

Bhupen Sahu is the chief SEO expert and founder of “mytechelps.com” He has a very deep interest in all technology topics whatsoever. His passion, dedication and quick decision making ability make him stand apart from others.

4 thoughts on “HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS

  • March 11, 2018 at 11:24 am
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  • March 26, 2018 at 7:47 pm
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